Your body vs. implants - Kaitlyn Sadtler
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As mentioned previously, our body’s immune system defends us against all sorts of dangers, and these include what we call “foreign bodies.” If you’ve ever gotten a splinter or had your ears pierced, you have had your immune system respond against a foreign body – in those cases the splinter or the earring is the foreign body. This response is why you begin to have issues with medical device implants, like the glucose monitors and insulin pumps mentioned in the video. Once our immune system detects this threat, it begins the process of trying to break it down. Special immune cells called macrophages come in and begin to try to break down the implant, and in the case of the glucose monitors, even these early actions of the immune system are enough to begin to throw off readings. After macrophages cannot degrade the implant, then our body tries to wall it off my depositing dense scar tissue around the implant. This tissue is made of collagen – the scar that forms around an implant is very similar to the scar that forms when you get a cut on your skin, both are trying to protect you from the outside world and any invading bacteria!
Check out another TED-Ed lesson on how the immune system works by clicking here.
Here is an example video of the foreign body response to implantation of a hernia mesh.
Anderson, James M., Analiz Rodriguez, and David T. Chang. "Foreign body reaction to biomaterials." Seminars in immunology. Vol. 20. No. 2. Academic Press, 2008.
Coleman, D. L., R. N. King, and J. D. Andrade. "The foreign body reaction: a chronic inflammatory response." Journal of biomedical materials research 8.5 (1974): 199-211.
Ziats, Nicholas P., Kathleen M. Miller, and James M. Anderson. "In vitro and in vivo interactions of cells with biomaterials." Biomaterials 9.1 (1988): 5-13.
Anderson, James M., et al. "Host reactions to biomaterials and their evaluation." Biomaterials science. Academic press, 1996. 165-214.
Badylak, Stephen F., et al. "Macrophage phenotype as a determinant of biologic scaffold remodeling." Tissue Engineering Part A 14.11 (2008): 1835-1842.
Academic Papers by author of video:
Sadtler, Kaitlyn, et al. "Design, clinical translation and immunological response of biomaterials in regenerative medicine." Nature Reviews Materials 1.7 (2016): 16040.
Sadtler, Kaitlyn, et al. "Divergent immune responses to synthetic and biological scaffolds." Biomaterials 192 (2019): 405-415.
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