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What causes the phases of the moon?

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What causes the phases of the moon? The common incorrect answer is the shadow of the Earth. The phases of the moon are actually just a result of our perception of the moon's half-illuminated surface. When the moon does pass through Earth's shadow the result is a lunar eclipse. This can be spectacular as the moon turns a deep shade of red.

A total lunar eclipse is when instead of a visible full moon, the moon is hidden by ________.

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